Minimally invasive brain surgeries are divided into:
Endoscopic pituitary surgeries
The pituitary gland is a gland located in the lower part of the brain that regulates body hormones. Pituitary surgeries are performed endoscopically through the nasal cavity. A surgical instrument is inserted through the nose and beside the nasal septum to reach the pituitary gland.
Endoscopic pituitary surgeries are used to remove pituitary tumors, which are tumors that secrete hormones that can travel through the blood or non-hormone-secreting tumors. Pituitary tumors can cause headaches and visual disturbances.
Diagnostic methods for pituitary tumors
include clinical examination, family medical history, hormone level analysis, and the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. Endoscopic pituitary surgeries are considered a type of minimally invasive brain surgery.
Endoscopic surgery for pituitary gland:
This surgery involves accessing the tumor through the nasal cavity, where Dr. Islam Alajhouri, an assistant professor of neurosurgery and spinal surgery, and holder of a doctorate in skull base tumors and a fellowship in brain endoscopy from the University of Greifswald, makes a small hole in the back of the nasal passage to reach the pituitary gland tumor. The tumor is removed in small parts that exit through the nose. After the tumor is removed, the patient begins drug or radiation therapy, depending on the case.
Treatment of hydrocephalus in children:
Hydrocephalus is a condition characterized by an abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid, which is a clear, colorless fluid that acts as a cushion for the brain against shocks. It surrounds the brain and leads to an increase in pressure inside the brain, causing an imbalance between the amount of cerebrospinal fluid produced and its absorption rate. This fluid buildup can affect the occurrence of ventricular enlargement and increased pressure inside the brain, and it can result from genetic deformities or be inherited.
Symptoms of hydrocephalus in children include:
- Headaches and dizziness
- Abnormal head size
- Pressure on the optic nerve
- Vision problems
- Delayed growth in children
Diagnosis is made through examination, medical history, sensory and balance tests, and the use of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain, as well as measuring the resistance of cerebrospinal fluid flow.